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What is the common material used in conductor?

April 1, 2024

Conductors are important components in electrical and electronic systems, used to carry electrical current from one point to another. The choice of conductor material is critical as it directly affects the performance, efficiency and cost of the electrical system. This article aims to explore the materials commonly used in conductors and their properties.



Copper has excellent electrical conductivity, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance, and is one of the most widely used electrical conductor materials. It is also highly malleable and can be easily drawn into wires of various diameters. Copper conductors are commonly used in electrical wiring for transmission and distribution and residential, commercial and industrial applications.



Aluminum is another commonly used material for electrical conductors, particularly for overhead power transmission lines. Although aluminum has a lower conductivity than copper, it is lighter and cheaper, making it a cost-effective option for transmitting electricity over long distances. Aluminum conductors are also used in electrical wires and busbars in a variety of applications.



In addition to copper and aluminum, various alloys are used in specialized applications requiring specific properties. For example, aluminum alloys such as aluminum magnesium silicon (Al-Mg-Si) are used in overhead power transmission lines to increase strength and corrosion resistance. Likewise, copper alloys such as copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) are used in marine and aerospace applications due to their excellent corrosion resistance and high electrical conductivity.


In summary, copper and aluminum are the most commonly used materials for electrical conductors due to their combination of good electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, and cost. Copper offers excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical strength, while aluminum provides a cost-effective and lightweight alternative for long-distance power transmission. Additionally, specialty alloys are used in specific applications to meet unique requirements. The choice of conductor material depends on the specific needs of the application, taking into account factors such as electrical performance, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and cost.